Category Archives: Sharepoint

Information on the configuration and maintenance of Sharepoint Services

Discover user rights in SharePoint

Among the top items capable of derailing your whole day or week are requests from auditors.  Who has access to a resource?  When did they exercise those rights?  In the pas few months, I have had several requests of this sort related to SharePoint rights.  Since I have once again started working on our SharePoint 2010-to-2013 migration project, and most of the SharePoint Powershell cmdlets were fresh in my mind, I though I would take a crack at this somewhat intimidating task.

As usual, writing a useful script took more time that I would have liked, but I am fairly pleased with the results.  The final product makes heavy use of Regular Expressions.  Special thanks go out to RegEx Hero, an online .NET regular expressions tester:
http://regexhero.net/tester/
AND, of course, to the Regular-Expressions.info site:
http://www.regular-expressions.info/

Using .NET-style RegEx named capture groups, I was able to eliminate redundant loops though the SharePoint web site list, thus making it possible to crawl all SharePoint web and site-level ACLs in only a few minutes. Hurray!

This code will work only on SharePoint 2010 farms that use Windows authentication. There may be limitations related to sites with multiple Windows domains as well. I will need to update this script in the near future to handle claims authentication, but we will cross that bridge when we come to it.

The script has some pretty convoluted loops that may not make any intuitive sense… I have tried to insert comments to explain what is going on. If you do choose to use this script in your environment and find it difficult to understand, feel free to contact me with questions.

Owing to the agonizing pain of attempting to embed complex PowerShell code in WordPress, this script now is provided as a GitHub “Gist”. Enjoy!

SharePoint Tip-of-the-day: Speed up Servicing

Hats off to Russ Maxwell over at MSDN blogs for this hot tip on SharePoint servicing:

http://blogs.msdn.com/b/russmax/archive/2013/04/01/why-sharepoint-2013-cumulative-update-takes-5-hours-to-install.aspx

I am getting back (finally) to working on our SharePoint 2013 migration, and being reminded of how much I hate servicing the SharePoint stack.  How can installing a few hundred megabytes of SharePoint bits take so much time?!?!?

It turns out you can speed up installation of service packs and cumulative updates simply by stopping (or pausing) Search services, the SharePoint Timer service, and the IIS Admin service.  I tried it, and it works!  Installation of the SharePoint 2013 September 2014 CU took not more than a minute with these services halted.  (At least, it did on three out of four servers… the fourth failed miserably owing to MSI errors.

More on that…

I found the following old, but still relevant, article on troubleshooting Office software installation problems:

http://support2.microsoft.com/kb/954713/en-us

To summarize, you go to your %temp% directory and look for “Opatchinstall(#).log” and “######_MSPLOG.log.” (In my case, there was a file called something like “wss##_MSPLOG.log.  Old-school SharePoint guys will recognize “WSS” as “Windows SharePoint Services”).  Try to locate a line containing “MainEngineThread is returning”, and look up the error code that was returned here:

Mine was error code 1646, or “ERROR_PATCH_REMOVAL_UNSUPPORTED: The patch package is not a removable patch package. Available beginning with Windows Installer version 3.0.”  Apparently the language pack for SP2013 Standard that I was using refused to uninstall.  That’s the legacy of excessive servicing from early release versions, I guess.  Since I was still running on Server 2012 (R1), I decided to nuke and repave rather than troubleshoot.  Boo.

Migrating Windows-auth users to Claims users in SharePoint

A short time back I published an article on upgrading a Windows-authenticated based SharePoint environment to an ADFS/Shibboleth-based claims-based environment. At that time I said I would post the script that I plan to use for the production migration when it was done. Well… here it is.

This script is based heavily on the one found here:
blog.sharepoint-voodoo.net/?p=68‎
Unfortunately, “SharePoint-Voodoo” appears to be down at the time of this writing, so I cannot make appropriate attribution to the original author. This script helped speed along this process for me… Thanks, anonymous SharePoint Guru!

My version of the script adds the following:

  • Adds stronger typing to prevent script errors.
  • Adds path checking for the generated CSV file (so that the script does not exit abruptly after running for 30 minutes).
  • Introduces options to specify different provider prefixes for windows group and user objects.
  • Introduces an option to add a UPN suffix to the new user identity
  • Collects all user input before doing any processing to speed along the process.
  • Adds several “-Limit All” parameters to the “Get-SP*” cmdlets to prevent omission of users from the migration process.

There are still some minor problems. When run in “convert” mode, the script generates an error for every migrated user, even when the user is migrated successfully. I expect this is owing to a bug in “Move-SPUser”, and there probably is not much to be done about it (other than to run the command in a try/catch block that suppresses that particular error message). Because I want to migrate some accounts from windows-auth to claims-with-windows-auth, there is some manual massaging of the output file that needs to be done before running the actual migration, but I think this is about as close as I can get to perfecting a generic migration script without making the end-product entirely site-specific.

I will need to run the script at least twice… once for my primary “CAMPUS” domain, and once to capture “GUEST” domain users. I may also want to do a pass to convert admin and service account entries to claims-with-windows-auth users.

Update, 2015-06:
The script has been further refined to include comment-based help and advanced parameter validation. This should make re-use of the code significantly easier, and reduce the danger of fat-fingering parameter data that is fed to the script. I also added an “-ignoreFilter” parameter to allow exclusion of source accounts before writing out to the migration CSV, and a routine to validate that AD users that are found in a site ACL still exist before attempting to convert them to claims users:

Coping with Renamed user Accounts in sharepoint

Yesterday I received a strange error report from a person trying to create a new SharePoint site collection.  Our front line guy went to investigate and found that she was getting a “User cannot be found” error out of SharePoint when attempting to complete the self-service site creation process.  This person reported that her last name changed recently, along with her user ID, yet SharePoint will still showing her as logged in under her old name.

Linking the “Correlation ID” up to the diagnostic logs was of no great help.  The diagnostic logs simply reported “User cannot be found” when executing the method “Microsoft.SharePoint.SPSite.SelfServiceCreateSite”.  We are able to see that “ownerLogin”, “ownerEmail”, and “ownerName” strings were being passed to this function, but not what the values of those strings were.  I guessed that the web form was passing the person’s old account login name to the function, and that since this data was no longer valid, an error was getting displayed.  But how to fix this?

SharePoint 2010 (and WSS 3.0 before it) keeps a list of Site Users that can be accessed using the SharePoint Web “SiteUsers” property. This list is updated every time a new user logs in to the site.  The list entries contain username, login identity, email address, and security ID (SID) data.  It also appears that Site User data is not updated when user data changes in Active Directory (as long as the SID stays the same, that is).  Additional user account data is stored in XML data in the SharePoint databases, and can be accessed using the SharePoint Web “SiteUserInfoList” property.  All of this data needs to be purged from the root web site so that our hapless user can once again pass valid data to the SelfServiceCreateSite method.

Presumably the Site Management tools could be forced to get the job done, but the default views under SharePoint 2010 are hiding all site users from me, even when I log in as a site administrator.  Let’s try PowerShell instead:

add-pssnapin microsoft.sharepoint.powershell 
$root = get-spweb -identity "https://sharepoint.uvm.edu/" 

# "Old ID" below should be all or part of the user's original login name: 
$oldAcc = $root.SiteUsers | ? {$_.userLogin -match "oldID"} 
#Let's see if we found something: 
$oldAcc.LoginName 

#Remove the user from the web's SiteUsers list: 
$root.SiteUsers.Remove($oldAcc.LoginName) 
$root.Update() 
#Let's see if it worked: 
$id = $oldAcc.ID 
$root = get-spweb -identity "https://sharepoint.uvm.edu/" 
$root.SiteUsers.GetByID($id) 
# (This should return a "User cannot be found" error.) 

#Now to see what is in SiteUserInfoList: 
$root.SiteUserInfoList.GetItemById($id) 
# (This data can be cleaned up in the browser by visiting:
# " /_catalogs/users/simple.aspx" 
# from your site collection page.)

Update, 2015-12-04:
You actually can do this in the SharePoint site administration UI as well. As a site administrator, call up the membership of any site group by visiting Site Actions -> Site Settings -> People and Groups, then select a group. Note the URL in your browser:
https://sharepoint.uvm.edu/sites/%5BsiteName%5D/_layouts/people.aspx?MembershipGroupId=3
Now just change the trailing number to “0”, and reload the page. You will get a list of all users of the site. Delete the user with outdated metadata, and then re-add them to the site.

SharePoint 2010 – Email Alerts to Site Administrators

We are in the final stages of preparation for the long-overdue upgrade to SharePoint 2010.  I have set up a preview site with a copy of the production SharePoint content database, and I want to notify all site owners that they should check out their sites for major problems.  How to do?  PowerShell?  Absolutely!

[powershell]

Set-PSDebug -Strict
Add-PSSnapin -Name microsoft.SharePoint.PowerShell

[string] $waUrl = "https://sharepoint2010.uvm.edu"
[string] $SmtpServer = "smtp.uvm.edu"
[string] $From = "saa-ad@uvm.edu"

$allAdmins = @()

[string] $subjTemplate = ‘Pending Upgrade for your site -siteURL-‘
[string] $bodyTemplate = @"
Message Body Goes Here.
Use the string -siteURL- in the body where you want the user’s site address to appear.
"@

$wa = Get-SPWebApplication -Identity $waUrl

foreach ($site in $wa.sites) {
#Write-Host "Working with site: " + $site.url
$siteAdmins = @()
$siteAdmins = $site.RootWeb.SiteAdministrators
ForEach ($admin in $siteAdmins) {
#Write-Host "Adding Admin: " + $admin.UserLogin
[string]$a = $($admin.UserLogin).Replace("CAMPUS","")
[string]$a = $a.replace(".adm","")
[string]$a = $a.replace("-admin","")
[string]$a = $a.replace("admin-","")
if ($a -notmatch "sa_|\system") { $allAdmins += , @($a; [string]$site.Url) }
}
$site.Dispose()
}

$allAdmins = $allAdmins | Sort-Object -Unique
#$allAdmins = $allAdmins | ? {$_[0] -match "jgm"} | Select-Object -Last 4

foreach ($admin in $allAdmins) {
[string] $to = $admin[0] + "@uvm.edu"
[string] $siteUrl = $admin[1]
[string] $subj = $subjTemplate.Replace("-siteURL-",$siteUrl)
[string] $body = $bodyTemplate.Replace("-siteURL-",$siteUrl)
Send-MailMessage -To $to -From $From -SmtpServer $SmtpServer -Subject $subj -BodyAsHtml $body
}

[/powershell]

SharePoint 2010 – Authentication and Browser Support Planning

We have gone back to the drawing board with SharePoint 2010 planning, and now are challenging some ideas about how authentication must be configured for SharePoint to work with our clients.  Previously, we felt the need to provide multiple supported authenticaiton types (Windows, Basic, and Forms) hosted on different IIS web sites, with unique URL’s (sharepoint, sharepointlite, partnerpoint).  We also felt the need to have a version of sharepoint with “Client Integration” features enabled, and one with these features disabled (sharepointlite).  With changes in SharePoint 2010, is this really necessary?

First, let’s look at the Windows vs. Basic assumption.  Are there any browsers out there that do not support Windows/NTLM authentication?  In fact, there are… the Android mobile browser and, um…, well, there do not appear to be any others.  However, it is not necessary to make a separate web site available to allow basic authentication.  If we enable basic auth on an exsiting Windows-auth web site, browsers that do not support Windows auth suddenly start working. (Update, 2013-02-36:  Chrome for Android now supports NTLM authentication, so there appears to be no need to support Basic authentication at all at this point in time.)

Now, let’s look at the client integrated vs. dumbed-down assumption.  Previously, we wanted to ensure the clients handled links to MS Office documents stored in SharePoint in a predictable fashion.  Users of Firefox and Safari frequently complained about “strange” document handling behavior in SharePoint links.  For people experiencing confusion caused by failed attempts to launch Office applications from SharePoint browser links, we exposed a version of SharePoint that had the client integration features disabled.  HOWEVER, under SharePoint 2010, the client integration features are much more reliable.  On Windows, I am able to make use of Office 2010 client integration in both IE9 and Firefox.  On the Mac, client integration works with Office 2011 Mac and Safari 5 or FireFox 8.  Additionally, SharePoint will detect if a browser cannot support client integration, and will disable Office inegration links automatically.  For example, the “Open in Word” link is greyed-out in my Chrome browser, while the “Download file” link is active.

Add to this the new mobile web version of SharePoint 2010.  If you connect from a browser listed in the “compat.browser” file on the SharePoint web server, you get directed to a light-weight mobile version of SharePoint instead.  See: http://blogs.technet.com/b/office2010/archive/2010/03/09/configure-sharepoint-server-2010-for-mobile-device-access.aspx for more details on how “compat.browser” works.  This version will use Office Web Apps to render Office documents, but editing will not be possible.  This grants mobile users a functional (if somewhat limited) access method for SharePoint content, while at the same time sidestepping the issue of client integration.  It also means that we do not have to deal with the hassle of attempting to ensure that Office Web Apps will work in a myriad of underpowered mobile browsers.

All things considered, things are looking bright for SharePoint 2010.  It seems we no longer will need a “lite” version of SharePoint, and we will not need two URLs to support the varying authentication needs of legacy browsers.

NTLMv2 – Troubleshooting Notes – NTLM Negotiation is a lie!

We are now in the process, several years late, of trying to disallow use LM and NTLM authentication on our campus. First attempt? Train Wreck!

For stage 1 of enforcement we chose to restrict our domain controllers to accept only NTLMv2 authentication, and reject LM/NTLM. Our thinking was that clients are supposed to negotiage for the the best auth security available, so by forcing NTLMv2 at the DC, we would be able to quickly flush out non-compliant clients. Futher, we assumed that there would not be a lot of non-compliant clients. Guess what? We were WRONG WRONG WRONG

You know which clients are non-compliant? Windows 7, IE8, IE8, FireFox 4b10, Chrome 9. What? Really? It’s true… when accessing IIS web servers configured to use Windows authentication, with NTLMv2 enforced on the authenticating server, even Windows 7 will negotiate down to the weakest possible NTLM level.   So… access to SharePoint 2007 from IE 9 beta on Win 7 falls back to welcome-to-the-80s LM authentication.  This is very shocking, and annoying. When inspecting authentication negotiation traffic to the web server, we see that both client and server have indicated that NTLMv2 is supported, and that LM should not be used. However, when the client sends its authentication challenge response, it sends NTLM and LM responses only and not NTLMv2. Only by setting local security policy on the Windows client to “NTLMv2 only” are we able to prevent the sending of LM/NTLM. Negotiation is a lie!

So, we are going to take this us with MS Support. Some resources that may be helpful going forward:

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/2006.08.securitywatch.aspx
A good explanation of how the “LMCompatibilityLevel” security setting works.  Contains one major factual error… it claims that clients and servers will always negotiate the highest mutually-support LM auth level.  This may be true for SMB/CIFS.  It certainly is not true for web auth.

http://kb.iu.edu/data/bamu.html
Over at Indiana University, LM/NTLM has been disabled for some time.  They have thorough documentation on configuring workstations to function properly in their more restrictive environment.  This page concerns the use of SharePoint at IU, and the required configuration settings for various browsers and operating systems for their network.  There is nothing specific to our problem here, but there is the implication that they experienced problems similar to our own.  All of their docs state that you must configure your client to perform NTLMv2 only, or authentication will fail.  Also included are notes on FireFox and Mac platforms, where client-side configuration apparently is required.
http://kb.iu.edu/data/atpq.html
An additional page that suggests that network clients will not be able to authenticate to IU resources unless they disabled NTLMv2 on the client.

Concerning FireFox on Windows:
http://forums.mozillazine.org/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=1648755
A developer notes that as of FF 3.6, FF uses Microsoft APIs for NTLM authentication.  So, if FF is not performing NTLM auth as you expect, you need to look to your OS for the source of the problem.  It’s true… we confirmed via packet capture that FF 4.0b10 and IE9RC both perform NTLM authentication in exactly the same way.

Concerning Macintosh client settings:
http://discussions.apple.com/thread.jspa?threadID=2369451
Recommended smb.conf file settings to enforce use of NTLMv2 on the Mac.  References are made here to an “nsmb.conf” file, which is not a typographic error.  More on this file here:
http://developer.apple.com/library/mac/#documentation/Darwin/Reference/ManPages/man5/nsmb.conf.5.html